Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Holistic Health Studies


Holistic Health

First Advisor

Carol Geisler


Holistic Health Studies


Current binary male/female perceptions of gender in the colonial West are inherently exclusionary, breed inequality and violence, and curb full expression of self, limiting personal and collective potential. Implicit biases are unseen cognitive forces within us, manipulating internal and external experiences of the illegitimate and manufactured gender binary that infuses into daily culture, and undermines our ability to achieve true equality in society. For the purposes of our design and develop framework, this scoping review assesses the 2010-2020 literature on self-reflection interventions to reduce implicit bias, identifies their foundational efficacy components, and suggests a model for applying to gender bias reduction interventions. We searched 6 databases using the a priori search terms “implicit bias” OR “unconscious bias” linked with the terms “self-reflection,” “introspection,” “journaling,” “mindfulness,” “meditation,” AND “intervention” and yielded a total of 1,603 results. After title review, abstract review, full-paper review, and utilization of the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools, 15 articles remained for final scoping review analysis. Of the 15 articles, 11 showed significant efficacy of self-reflection interventions for reducing implicit bias. Meditation practice (MP) and loving-kindness meditation (LKM) arose as the most prominent forms of self-reflection. Content analysis resulted in four proposed mechanisms of change: extension of in-group, decreased automaticity, awareness and concern of bias, and practice. Results suggest effective foundational components for reducing implicit bias; a promising practice involving self-reflection that addresses all four proposed mechanisms of change will likely be the most effective educational model for reducing implicit gender bias in education, health care, and parenting.