Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Holistic Health Studies


Holistic Health

First Advisor

Carol Geisler

Second Advisor

Stasia Johnson Steinhagen

Third Advisor

Janet Dahlem


Holistic Health Studies


Ume is a Japanese apricot, and Bainiku Ekisu (BE) is concentrated ume juice. Ume has been used as a food and folk remedy for thousands of years in East Asian countries, and BE was created in Japan centuries ago and has been used as a remedy since. In the Western world, the nutritional and medicinal benefits of ume and BE are not popularly known, despite many experimental studies showing their numerous health benefits. There are no known systematic reviews of the health benefits of ume and BE. Therefore, this systematic review describes the last 20 years of quality empirical studies that investigate ume and BE health benefits. It finds 27 quality studies that confirm ume and BE's more than 20 benefits, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, and anti-viral effects when observed in both laboratory tests and clinical studies. Therefore, individuals, conventional and holistic health professionals should consider ume and BE for their nutritional and medicinal properties.