Date of Award


Document Type

Action Research Project

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Education, Montessori

First Advisor

Sandra Wyner Andrew


Montessori Early Childhood


Student behaviors were tallied in three similar Montessori early childhood classes while children practiced social, motor and academic skills with and without background music. Teacher impressions of work period productivity were tallied along with information from teacher notes and student self-assessments. Music came from Pandora stations such as “Relaxation Radio” or “Yoga Radio.” Music was selected for slow tempo (approximately 60 beats per minute or the rate of the adult heart) and relaxing instrumental quality, played at a soft volume and during times when students were not expected to pay attention to other auditory input such as stories, songs, lessons or announcements. Results showed that student smiles and productivity increased with background music, as did teacher and student assessments of productivity. Introducing appropriate background music can be a simple way to increase student focus. Further research will confirm if results are similar in classes of younger and older students and in traditional classrooms.