Date of Award


Document Type

Action Research Project

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Education, Montessori

First Advisor

Alisha Brandon


Montessori Elementary Education, Elementary Education


The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of pencil grasp exercises on the handwriting of sixth-grade resource students. This action research project took place in a public middle school resource classroom located on the outskirts of a suburb. The six-week study had seventeen student participants, ranging between the ages of eleven and twelve years. During the study, the researcher collected data on the placement of the hand and fingers on the pencil, grasp, legibility, letter placement, fluency, and perception of abilities. The data utilized pre and post questionnaires, observations, matrixes, and assessments. Results showed that sixth-grade resource students could change their pencil grasp. Additionally, the data indicated that fluency decreases when legibility and placement increases. Further studies could identify if the change in grasp would decrease hand cramping, how long the decline in fluency lasts, and if the increase in legibility is long term.