Date of Award


Document Type

Action Research Project

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education


Education, Montessori

First Advisor

Syneva Barrett


Montessori Elementary Education, Elementary Education


The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of Tootling without external rewards on negative behaviors during whole-class lessons in a Montessori lower elementary classroom. Twenty-four students, ranging from six to nine-years-of-age, including five who received outside assistance, were the subjects of this study. The students participated in a self-assessment pre- and post-intervention. The researcher gave lessons on whole-class lesson etiquette, the importance of being a supportive community, and how to report their classmates’ positive behaviors after whole-class lessons using Tootles. The results suggested Tootling without external rewards had minimal positive effect on students’ negative behaviors during whole-class lessons. A slight increase occurred in students’ positive opinions about their own and their peers’ behaviors during whole-class lessons. Limitations, directions for future study, and implications are discussed.