Date of Award
Action Research Project
Master of Arts in Education
Montessori Elementary Education, Elementary Education
The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of Tootling without external rewards on negative behaviors during whole-class lessons in a Montessori lower elementary classroom. Twenty-four students, ranging from six to nine-years-of-age, including five who received outside assistance, were the subjects of this study. The students participated in a self-assessment pre- and post-intervention. The researcher gave lessons on whole-class lesson etiquette, the importance of being a supportive community, and how to report their classmates’ positive behaviors after whole-class lessons using Tootles. The results suggested Tootling without external rewards had minimal positive effect on students’ negative behaviors during whole-class lessons. A slight increase occurred in students’ positive opinions about their own and their peers’ behaviors during whole-class lessons. Limitations, directions for future study, and implications are discussed.
Goss, Anita Lynette. (2019). The Effects of Tootling Without External Rewards On Whole-Class Lessons in a Lower Elementary Classroom. Retrieved from Sophia, the St. Catherine University repository website: https://sophia.stkate.edu/maed/339