Date of Award


Document Type

Action Research Project

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education



First Advisor

Kenneth Vos


Curriculum and Instruction


The intent of this study was to determine the effect of using a systematic concrete-representational-abstract approach during mathematical instruction on student outcomes. The research study took place in a first grade public school elementary classroom with 19 students. The sources of data collection were from a pretest and post-test, lesson exits, student journal entries, and teacher reflections. The data revealed an overall increase in student results from the pretest to the post-test. The lesson exits exhibited a steady increase in understanding. The teacher reflections also revealed information that monitored when the process should move on to the next stage. In conclusion, students were confident and excited to explain their thinking through the use of materials. Due to the systematic CRA structure, the charted data outcomes demonstrate place and coin value student growth and further support the use of CRA in instructional decisions.

Included in

Education Commons