Date of Award


Document Type

Action Research Project

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education



First Advisor

Arturo Sesma


Curriculum and Instruction


This study explored the effect of retrieval practice and metacognitive reflection on student outcomes. Participants included seventeen 11th and 12th-grade Psychology students from a rural, midwestern high school. Students utilized rehearsal practice, ungraded quizzes, and metacognitive reflection over 14 weeks of hybrid and distance learning models during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data was collected through pre and post-questionnaires, an observational journal, and assessment scores. Student outcomes were measured through participant self-reports and assessment scores. The findings showed strong student preference towards ungraded quizzes, as all post-questionnaire participants indicated they felt the strategy helped them learn what they did or did not know. Students liked that the strategy was low-pressure, reinforced the content, and helped build their confidence. Future research is needed to examine the benefits of pairing ungraded quizzes and metacognitive reflection.

Included in

Education Commons