Title of Work
Evaluating Interventions to Reduce Lead Poisoning among Vulnerable Population: Systematic Review
City of Publication or Presentation
St. Paul, MN
Minnesota Environmental Health Association Winter Conference
St. Paul, MN
Background: Lead poisoning occurs when the health or bodily functions of an individual are adversely affected. Lead exposure can occur through ingestion, direct contact or inhalation. The population at high-risk for lead poisoning include primarily vulnerable populations, such as low-income minority groups, children, women who are pregnant, elderly, and the immunocompromised. Globally, in 2017, 1.06 million deaths were due to lead poisoning. Lead can spread to the brain, kidney, liver, and can accumulate over time in the bones and teeth. Objective: This systematic review seeks to determine effective interventions to reduce lead exposure and ultimately blood lead levels (BLLs) in the vulnerable population. Methods: Sources for this systematic review were retrieved from Medline, CINAHL, EBSCO. The keywords yielded the most relevant articles to our topic were “Lead AND Intervention study OR Randomized control study”. A total of 30 articles were generated. Eleven studies which met the inclusion criteria were articles published between the years of 2003-2019, written in English, with access to full text, peer-reviewed, and relevant to the topic. The 19 research articles that were excluded consists of topics that did not align with our research topic. Results: Various interventions such as lead screening, residential renovations, boil advisories, education, and medical treatment were implemented to reduce BLLs. The results showed that multiple forms of interventions were effective in reducing BLLs among the vulnerable population. Residential renovations were effective at reducing lead exposure through the home environment and boil advisories were effective in reducing lead exposure through water. Lead screening and supplementation were effective in reducing BLLs throughout vulnerable populations; whereas chelation therapy was ineffective. The effectiveness of education was dependent upon the population of interest, therefore results for this intervention were inconclusive. Conclusion: We suggest that a multicomponent intervention approach would be the most effective in reducing BLLs in the vulnerable population. Residential lead exposure reduction coupled with medical interventions such as screening and calcium carbonate supplementations will effectively lower BLLs. Implication: This review calls for the need to implement interventions which reduce lead exposure and elevated BLLs among the vulnerable populations.
Cutts, E., Mann, K., Peterson, A., Urbina, E., & Ekwonye, A. U. (2020, January 30). Evaluating Interventions to Reduce Lead Poisoning among Vulnerable Population: Systematic Review. Poster session presented at the Minnesota Environmental Health Association Winter Conference, St. Paul, MN